"Cathar" and "The Good Men" redirect here. For the Dutch house music duo, see Zki & Dobre. For other uses, see Cathar (disambiguation).
The Occitan cross was a "Cathar rallying symbol".
- 2General beliefs
- 4Later history
- 5Oldest account of ordinary people told in their own words
- 6Historical scholarship
- 7In art and music
- 8In popular culture
- 9See also
- 11External links
OriginsThe origins of the Cathars' beliefs are unclear, but most theories agree they came from theByzantine Empire, mostly by the trade routes and spread from the First Bulgarian Empire to the Netherlands. The name of Bulgarians (Bougres) was also applied to the Albigenses, and they maintained an association with the similar Christian movement of the Bogomils ("Friends of God") ofThrace."That there was a substantial transmission of ritual and ideas from Bogomilism to Catharism is beyond reasonable doubt." Their doctrines have numerous resemblances to those of the Bogomils and the Paulicians, who influenced them, as well as the earlier Marcionites, who were found in the same areas as the Paulicians, the Manicheans and the Christian Gnostics of the first few centuries AD, although, as many scholars, most notably Mark Pegg, have pointed out, it would be erroneous to extrapolate direct, historical connections based on theoretical similarities perceived by modern scholars. St John Damascene, writing in the 8th century AD, also notes of an earlier sect called the "Cathari", in his book On Heresies, taken from the epitome provided by Epiphanius of Salamis in his Panarion. He says of them: "They absolutely reject those who marry a second time, and reject the possibility of penance [that is, forgiveness of sins after baptism]". These are probably the same Cathari who are mentioned in Canon 8 of the First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea in the year 325, which states "...[I]f those called Cathari come over [to the faith], let them first make profession that they are willing to communicate [sharefull communion] with the twice-married, and grant pardon to those who have lapsed..."It is likely that we have only a partial view of their beliefs, because the writings of the Cathars were mostly destroyed because of the doctrinal threat perceived by the Papacy; much of our existing knowledge of the Cathars is derived from their opponents. Conclusions about Cathar ideology continue to be fiercely debated with commentators regularly accusing their opponents of speculation, distortion and bias. There are a few texts from the Cathars themselves which were preserved by their opponents (the Rituel Cathare de Lyon) which give a glimpse of the inner workings of their faith, but these still leave many questions unanswered. One large text which has survived, The Book of Two Principles (Liber de duobus principiis), elaborates the principles of dualistic theology from the point of view of some of the Albanenses Cathars.It is now generally agreed by most scholars that identifiable historical Catharism did not emerge until at least 1143, when the first confirmed report of a group espousing similar beliefs is reported being active at Cologne by the cleric Eberwin of Steinfeld. A landmark in the "institutional history" of the Cathars was the Council, held in 1167 at Saint-Félix-Lauragais, attended by many local figures and also by the Bogomil papa Nicetas, the Cathar bishop of (northern) France and a leader of the Cathars of Lombardy.The Cathars were largely a homegrown, Western European/Latin Christian phenomenon, springing up in the Rhineland cities (particularly Cologne) in the mid-12th century, northern France around the same time, and particularly southern France — the Languedoc — and the northern Italian cities in the mid-late 12th century. In the Languedoc and northern Italy, the Cathars attained their greatest popularity, surviving in the Languedoc, in much reduced form, up to around 1325 and in the Italian cities until the Inquisitions of the 1260s–1300s finally rooted them out.
Role of women and gender
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Treaty and persecution
Oldest account of ordinary people told in their own words
In art and music
In popular culture
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cathars.|
- Cathar texts, The Gnostic Society Library, including the Lyon Ritual.
- Modern Day Cathars: Official website of the 21st century Cathar movement.
- Catharism on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)
- "Catharism and the Cathars of the Languedoc", Castles & Manor Houses, archived from the original on 7 June 2011: History, origins, theology and extirpation.
- Cathar castles: details, histories, photographs, plans and maps of 30 Cathar castles.
- Cathar castles (interactive map), Aude‐Aude.
- Perrottet, Tony (9 May 2010), "The Besieged and the Beautiful in Languedoc", The New York Times
- Heretics in the Catalan Pyrenees at the end of the 11th century? (article), Paratge, 2013.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Albigen". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.