Monday, April 27, 2015

The "Evolution" of Flight...!












THE EVOLUTION OF FLIGHT...!

http://anagrammatt3.blogspot.ca/2015/05/more-of-my-art-evolution-aerodymanics.html


FIRST SUCCESSFUL PLANE (1903):
http://www.lastwordonnothing.com/2012/06/22/guest-post-reinventing-the-wheel/wright-brothers-2/
http://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/wright-brothers/online/fly/1903/

FIRST INSECT FLIGHT...!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect_wing
http://wiki.ubc.ca/Evolution_of_Insect_Wings
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/206/23/4191.abstract

EVOLUTION OF BIRD & BAT FLIGHT...!
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/flight/enter.html

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/flight/evolve.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/flight/origins.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/flight/converge.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2731632/

FIRST MAMMAL GLIDE...!
http://www.rumbalara-e.schools.nsw.edu.au/resources/environmental-contacts/biodiversity/squirrel-glider-resources

DUMBO THE FLYING ELEPHANT...!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumbo_the_Flying_Elephant
http://disney.wikia.com/wiki/Dumbo_%28character%29

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REASONS FOR FLIGHT IN EVOLUTION...!!!

The Flight Debate


A debate that has continued since the 1880s concerns the question of whether flight developed from the ground up (did flight evolve from a bipedal, cursorial, ground-dwelling ancestor?) or from the trees down (did flight evolve from a semi-bipedal, arboreal, leaping and gliding ancestor?). This debate will no doubt continue, however, it is a pointless debate, as neither hypothesis is testable. The important question is, how did the flight stroke evolve?

Why Did Flight Evolve?: Several Main Hypotheses


    To help escape from predators

    To help catch flying or speedy prey

    To help move from place to place (leaping or gliding)

    To free the hindlegs for use as weapons

    To gain access to new food sources or an unoccupied niche


These hypotheses also cannot be tested directly. They are interesting ideas, and some may even be right. But we really can't conceive of finding real evidence that will decide the plausibility of these hypotheses.

Flight Origins: Summation


The problem is not whether flight evolved on the ground or in the trees, but how the flight stroke evolved. Without this stroke, you can't fly. So, we study this question by a series of steps. We define what flight is; that is, what features you need to fly. Then, using a cladogram of the flying animals and their closest relatives, we analyze the sequence of assembly of these features, and then infer what these structures were doing when they first evolved.


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[[["...
While it is still unclear whether modern bats arose rapidly or gradually from their quadrupedal ancestor, it does seem certain that their evolution required many molecular changes to dramatically alter morphology from a limb to a wing. One might argue that a small and transient increase in the length of limb bones is not striking, but this is taken out of the greater context of evolution over millions of years. While on its own this specific modification to the Prx1 enhancer would not have had a dramatic effect in a more mouse-like quadrupedal ancestor, it likely contributed significantly to morphological divergence in combination with other molecular changes. Future work to identify more of these molecular changes combined with filling gaps in the fossil record will likely unravel the complicated cause and effect of bat evolution and indicate how these molecular changes may have given rise to morphological adaptation that drove bat wing evolution.

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...THE SAME or similar to a flapping Elephant Ear, it takes more than having some kind of wings to fly...! ...there is all the necessary aerodynamics to develop/design/"self-design"...!

...the more complex wings are in the small insect World with up to 4 wings to "MANAGE"...!

...ANYWAY FOLKS, IN SCIENCE YOU CAN ALSO IMAGINE THINGS AND EVEN PROVE THEM...! It is all a matter of the dumb persons that are doing the "Science"...! HUMANS BARELY STARTED MAKING PLANES IN 1903...!


...REALLY there are no reasons in pure logic for birds or flying...! you can hit the ground too hard or kill yourself...!!! YOU SEE INSECTS ARE SMALL ENOUGH TO NOT REALLY HURT THEMSELVES FLYING...!

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